What is musculoskeletal pain?
Musculoskeletal pain affects the bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. It can be acute (having a rapid onset with severe symptoms) or chronic (long-lasting). Musculoskeletal pain can be localized in one area, or widespread.
Lower back pain is the most common type of musculoskeletal pain. Other common types include tendonitis, myalgia (muscle pain), and stress fractures.
What are the different types of musculoskeletal pain?
Musculoskeletal pain has varying symptoms and causes. Some of the more common types of pain include:
- Bone pain: This is usually deep, penetrating, or dull. It most commonly results from injury. It is important to be sure that the pain is not related to a fracture or tumor.
- Muscle pain: This is often less intense than bone pain, but it can still be debilitating. Muscle pain can be caused by an injury, an autoimmune reaction, loss of blood flow to the muscle, infection, or a tumor. The pain can also include muscle spasms and cramps.
- Tendon and ligament pain: Pains in the tendons or ligaments are often caused by injuries, including sprains. This type of musculoskeletal pain often becomes worse when the affected area is stretched or moved.
- Fibromyalgia: This is a condition that may cause pain in the muscles, tendons, or ligaments. The pain is usually in multiple locations and can be difficult to describe. Fibromyalgia is usually accompanied by other symptoms.
- Joint pain: Joint injuries and diseases usually produce a stiff, aching, "arthritic" pain. The pain may range from mild to severe and worsens when moving the joint. The joints may also swell. Joint inflammation (arthritis) is a common cause of pain.
- "Tunnel" syndromes: This refers to musculoskeletal disorders that cause pain due to nerve compression. The disorders include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The pain tends to spread along the path supplied by the nerve and may feel like burning. These disorders are often caused by overuse.
What are the causes of musculoskeletal pain?
Anyone can experience musculoskeletal pain. It is most often caused by an injury to the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or nerves. This can be caused by jerking movements, car accidents, falls, fractures, sprains, dislocations, and direct blows to the muscle.
Musculoskeletal pain can also be caused by overuse. Pain from overuse affects 33% of adults. Lower back pain from overuse is the most common work-related diagnosis in Western society.
Poor posture or prolonged immobilization can also cause musculoskeletal pain.
What are the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain?
Symptoms of musculoskeletal pain depend on whether the pain is caused by an injury or overuse and whether it is chronic or acute. The symptoms can also differ from person to person.
Common symptoms include:
Localized or widespread pain that can worsen with movement
Aching or stiffness of the entire body
The feeling that your muscles have been pulled or overworked
The sensation of "burning" in your muscles
If you have any of these symptoms, you should see your doctor for a thorough
Treatment of Musculoskeletal Disorder
Musculoskeletal-related pain is one of the most disabling health conditions affecting more than one-third of the adult population worldwide. Pain from various mechanisms and origins is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated. The complexity of molecular mechanisms correlating pain and the progression of musculoskeletal diseases is not yet fully understood. Molecular biomarkers for objective evaluation and treatment follow-up are needed as a step towards targeted treatment of pain as a symptom or as a disease. Stem cell therapy is already under investigation for the treatment of different types of musculoskeletal-related pain.
Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies are already being tested in various clinical trials that use musculoskeletal system-related pain as the primary or secondary endpoint. Genetically engineered stem cells, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells, offer promising novel perspectives for pain treatment. It is possible that a more focused approach and reassessment of therapeutic goals will contribute to the overall efficacy, as well as to the clinical acceptance of regenerative medicine therapies.